WILLIAM M ROBBINS from the SCHOOL OF BUSINESS, CHARLES STURT UNIVERSITY has written a fine article: MACQUARIE, MARSDEN and the SUNDAY MUSTER DISPUTE: some thoughts on the role of religion and the management of convict workers.
(MELINDA is recorded as Protestant whilst living with the Hills, the Reverend being Anglican. The McNallys are Roman Catholic and in 1824 Patrick has Melinda baptised Catholic at St Marys. In later years Melinda takes her own children to St James Anglican for baptism. Her marriage to Basil Kendall takes place in the Presbyterian Church. )
The role of religion has been recognised as an ingredient in the transformation of preindustrial
worker attitudes and values. While official objectives for transportation of
convicts to New South Wales certainly gave religion an important role, some historians
have been less than convinced of its impact in reality. This paper will examine +the role
of religion in transforming convict worker attitudes by examining a dispute between
Governor Macquarie and the Reverend Samuel Marsden over their attitudes toward a
Government Order requiring convicts to be mustered on Sunday mornings. The Governor
argued access to worship would improve convict morals while Marsden, the Chief
Chaplain of the colony, argued these musters only increased convict lawlessness and
decreased employer control over their convict labour. In analysing these opinions, the
paper concludes that religious motives were only a minor consideration and that at the
heart of the dispute was a conflict over the power of capital and labour in the colony.
The Reverend Henry Fulton claimed the
Order had kept the convicts ‘from thieving, drinking and lewdness’ while James Mileham
asserted that the Order had reclaimed Sunday from the convicts who had before its effect
‘spent it in Idleness and Debauchery’ (HRA I Vol. IX. Macquarie to Bathurst, 4 December
1817, Enclosures No. 8 & 12: 522 & 529).
SITES OF INTEREST
Tradition and Change: Australian churches and the future Carole M. Cusack, University of Sydney
- ‘The most outrageous conduct’ Convict rebellions in colonial Australia
By Tom O’LINCOLN
Religion sometimes restrained the Irish. Because of hostility to the Roman church, the authorities very seldom allowed Catholic priests to hold mass before 1820, but after that they relented, knowing that the priests would counsel submission to the system. However even among the Irish, probably only a minority heeded such counsel. Other clergy had very little effect. A chaplain named Hasell preached at Castle Hill on the very day of a famous rebellion; he might have saved his breath. A lot of non-Catholic convicts were hostile to religion because, from the ‘flogging parson’ Samuel Marsden onwards, they were part of a repressive apparatus, often serving as magistrates and ordering the lash. As the popular demagogue J.D. Lang joked, in some countries the clergy might ‘take the fleece’ but New South Wales was the only place they were ‘openly authorised … to take the hide also, or to flay their flock alive.’ (Quoted in Buckley and Wheelwright: 58).
MORE SITES TO SEE RE MUSTERS. MUSTERS WERE A FREQUENT EVENT AS THE MEANS OF TALLYING SUCH THINGS AS SETTLERS IN AN AREA, CONVICTS ARRIVING ON SHIPE ETC BUT THE SUNDAY RELIGIOUS MUSTER HAS OTHER ELEMENTS. BELOW ARE SOME ITEMS RE GENERAL MUSTERS.
Published by the Central Coast Family History Society in 200?, this CD contains an incomplete index to the wives of convicts, and female convicts with accompanying children, mentioned in the NSW Musters and Other Papers 1825 – 1840 held at NSW State Records ( 2/8241 to 2/8282 & reels 2417 to 2428).
By Trevor McClaughlin
- This list of censuses and musters was prepared by Graham Lewis and is posted in
- LACHLAN AND ELIZABETH MACQUARIE (LEMA)
- ROBERT CARTWIGHT
Monday 21. Octr. !
I left Parramatta early this morning accompanied by Mrs. Macquarie and Son in the Carriage, and arrived at Sydney at 8,O’Clock; having come down for the purpose of taking the General Annual muster at Sydney and remaining here till completed. —
- Accounting concepts in the construction of
social status and privilege: a microhistorical
study of an early Australian convict
- PENTRICH HISTORICAL SOCIETY. JOHN ONIONS
JOHN ONIONS (1768-1840)
According to his indent papers, filled out at the time of his transportation, John ONIONS was born in Shropshire around 1768. He was probably a cousin of the ONIONS family who were Iron masters living in Madeley. If John hails from Madeley, he may well have heard thepreacher John WESLEY who often visited his friend John FLETCHER of Madeley and preached in the old church at Madeley Wood. When John was aged about 20 years, he became an Evangelical Christian and became interested in the singing of Sacred Music. WESLEY advised his followers…
… ‘to sing lustily and with good courage, be no more afraid of your voice now, than when you sang the songs of Satan’.
AND THE STORY OF THE PENTRICH REBELLION
Colonial Times and Tasmanian Advertiser Friday 6 April 1827
The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser, Saturday 6 January 1827, page 2, 3 SAYS
THE COLONIAL ALMANACK.-The veracity of the Chronological Information in
this little work being called in question, by
ERICA AND TOM’S PLACE http://www.geocities.com/erica_and_tom/
SYKES FAMILY http://www.sykesfamily.com.au/sarah.htm
The Irish In The New Colony
James Doyle (1765 – 1836)
Andrew Doyle (1774 – 1841)
James Augustine Cunneen (1826 – 1889)
Richard Fitzgerald (1771 – 1840)
Patrick Hand (c.1777 – 1827)
James Dunn (? – 1837)
Michael Lamb (c.1774 – 1860)
Dennis McCarty (c.1768 – ? )
Patrick Partland (c.1772-?) FROM ST MATTHEWS CATHOLIC CHURCH PARRAMATTA
- EUREKA COUNCIL To promote interest in Australian History and the preservation of Australia’s Heritage http://www.eurekacouncil.com.au/
Our understanding about the social conditions and family circumstances of the
children who were admitted to the Orphan Schools has been enriched by this research.
It has provided us with an appreciation of the social and financial problems
experienced by many families, and which impinged on the lives of their children.